Perkembangan Ilmu Pengetahuan


Studies of knowledge is growing very slowly at first until the Middle Ages (15-16 century). The more rapid development sedikti especially after Copernicus and Galileo based his findings is strengthened by changing the concept of a heliocentric and geocentric  changing rulers and religious beliefs at this time. This discovery was possible due to the development of research aids (telescope) the better. This period is known as the beginning of the century, modern science establishes a truth based on the induction or experiment. Radical changes in the concept of science that is also affecting the way of thinking and also spur the development of science to the industrial revolution in the 19th century.
Until mid-century approached, the development of science is not so wide and deep that a person who has a sharp and critical way of thinking is very likely to get the better of several disciplines at once.
Continuous development of science and so fast, especially from the beginning of the 20th century led to the classification of science evolve toward a more specific disciplines. For example in the disciplines of chemistry there have been focusing into various sub-disciplines of chemistry, among others: theoretical chemistry, analytical chemistry, inorganic chemistry, biochemistry, physical chemistry, organic chemistry. The next example is the sub-disciplines of organic chemistry, there is such focus towards the synthesis of organic chemicals and chemical nature. natural chemical groups can be subdivided based on their chemical compounds.
           Based on the focus of the development of science shows that science is evolving so rapidly that no longer allows a person can master the science perfectly. To be able to master their knowledge well, then eventually an expert will be more focus or specialize themselves in one specific discipline focus.
In other respects, the development of not only the direction of any disciplinary focus. But a lot of new science that can not be addressed by one discipline alone. Such knowledge is referred to as a multidisciplinary science. Examples of the most popular science is a multidisciplinary environmental science. Discussion of environmental science can be seen from the discipline of social science and science. IPA approach can be seen from various disciplines such as chemistry (chemical environment), physical (environmental physics), biology (ecology, biodiversivitas), hydrology (water pollution), geography (air pollution, climate change), agriculture and many others.
The development of multidisciplinary science is quite a lot and some multidisciplinary science currently growing very rapidly, eg biotechnology, genetic engineering, informatics / computer and materials science. These developments greatly influence the pattern of view and the social life of man.
            IPA is very rapid developments occurred after the introduction of the concept of quantum physics and relativtas at the beginning of the 20th century. The concept of modern science is affecting the overall concept so that in some cases necessary revisions and adjustments to the scientific conception of modern thought. Thus there are two concepts of science, that science is telaahannya classical macroscopic and microscopic nature of modern science.
Many opinions about the notion of classical science and modern science are triggered by the experts. Opinions are different because each is generally based on their disciplinary field. Physicist for example defines that the IPA is a classic is the development of physics before the twentieth century, while modern science is the development of physics after the twentieth century. Modern physics begins at the advent of Einstein’s relativity theory, followed by the Max Planck radiation theory (1910), X-rays by Roentgen (1923). While classical science began early on to limit the emergence of relativity theory. Other biologists of his view of classical science and modern science. Similarly, viewed from the other disciplines.
In general, the notion of science is not just in terms of one discipline alone, but science can be further elaborated on the various disciplines.
A.       IPA Classics
When viewed from the classical notion of itself, it means that the traditional classics are generally based on experience, habit, or instinct alone. Although there is creation, but a clone of the surrounding circumstances.
Physicists distinguish between Classical Physics and Modern Physics. Classical physics or physics is limited study of material components and interactions between components of the development of observation.
Classical science in general, for example, described the manufacture of yeast and yeast tempe filter, although only based on the experience of farmers, but farmers have unknowingly been in the field of microbiology, mycology, and of course can not be separated from the underlying physics. Another example, coconut sugar making is a process of chemical physics together that have a high level, also making shrimp paste, fish sauce, rendang, and egg sauce is a classic work of science. Farmers makers / craftsmen did not know the process that occurs in creating his work. Similarly, any activity which is a ban on trust. In other words, it is considered taboo or relatives or the armature is an attempt to maintain ecological balance, for example geckos should not be killed, the fish in a haunted place should not be eaten. They do not do the research and testing, but only based on the experiences of his ancestors.
2.      IPA modern
Modern science emerged based on research and testing and has held the reforms associated with a variety of existing disciplines. The process of Canning , canning fish, fruits, and various activities related to physics, biology, chemistry, biochemistry, and so is the result of the development of science that has been enjoyed by humans.
Pioneered the start of modern physics, modern science is associated with the discovery of relativity and quantum theory that describes the properties of atoms, nuclei, molecules and other particles of solids. For example, nuclear technology is a modern technology that can be utilized in the medical field, trasnportasi, armed forces, and a variety of research related to other disciplines.
Obtained on the basis of modern science research using the scientific method if accompanied by repeated testing in order to obtain a solid science, both for applied or pure science. Many examples of modern science activities, such as the utilization of solar energy to electricity-related activities for transportation, industry, households are Foron use to cause the flow of electric charge (electrons) due to differences in heat, forming cell power plant. Furnace has been widely used sunlight that only the principle of a concave lens focal point. With geothermal power can be obtained. In relation to the natural environment, to create a clean atmosphere the thought trash utilization of organisms, such as hay, the rest of the other crops, and animal waste is processed with the help of bacteria under certain conditions to produce gases that can be utilized as a substitute fuel. The above process is often referred to as biogas energii.
Thus the IPA classification of classical and IPA modern was not related to time and the classification of disciplines. This classification refers to the conception that is more a way of thinking, way of looking at, and how to analyze a natural phenomenon. The development of a very big these days is supported by the development of computer science and software are increasingly fast and powerful.

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